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The Indian Ocean Region in the 21st Century: geopolitical, economic, and environmental ties

The Indian Ocean littoral, which spans Australasia, South East Asia, South Asia, West Asia, and Eastern and Southern Africa, is home to 2.7 billion people. It is one of the world’s youngest regions – the average age of India Ocean littoral is under 30.

This report examines geopolitical, economic, and environmental dynamics in the Indian Ocean. It first looks at the history of the Indian Ocean region, examining trade, culture, and geopolitics.

Following this, the report addresses in turn: the Indian Ocean’s geopolitics and the threats it faces; trade and economic flows through its waters; and the Indian Ocean as an environmental space, with a focus on environmental risks and climate change. In conclusion, the report outlines how deepening and interconnected geopolitical, economic, and environmental ties are making the Indian Ocean a central region in the 21st century.